Setting System Time-Date-Timezone
This document explains how to set your computer's clock from Linux,
how to set your timezone, and other stuff related to Linux and how it
does its time-keeping.
Your computer has two timepieces; a battery-backed one that is
always running (the ``hardware'', ``BIOS'', or ``CMOS'' clock), and
another that is maintained by the operating system currently running
on your computer (the ``system'' clock). The hardware clock is
generally only used to set the system clock when your operating system
boots, and then from that point until you reboot or turn off your
system, the system clock is the one used to keep track of time.
On Linux systems, you have a choice of keeping the hardware clock
in UTC/GMT time or local time. The preferred option is to keep it in
UTC because then daylight savings can be automatically accounted for.
The only disadvantage with keeping the hardware clock in UTC is that
if you dual boot with an operating system (such as DOS) that expects
the hardware clock to be set to local time, the time will always be
wrong in that operating system.
Setting your timezone
The timezone under Linux is set by a symbolic link from
/etc/localtime to a
file in the
/usr/share/zoneinfo directory that corresponds with what
timezone you are in. For example, since I'm in South Australia,
/etc/localtime is a symlink to
/usr/share/zoneinfo/Australia/South. To set this link,
ln -sf ../usr/share/zoneinfo/your/zone /etc/localtime
your/zone with something like
Australia/Perth. Have a
look in the directories under
/usr/share/zoneinfo to see
what timezones are available.
 This assumes that
/usr/share/zoneinfo is linked to
/etc/localtime as it is under Red Hat Linux.
 On older systems, you'll
/usr/lib/zoneinfo is used instead of
/usr/share/zoneinfo. See also the later section ``The time in some applications is wrong''.
Setting UTC or local time
When Linux boots, one of the initialisation scripts will run the
/sbin/hwclock program to copy the current hardware clock
time to the system clock.
hwclock will assume the
hardware clock is set to local time unless it is run with the
--utc switch. Rather than editing the startup script,
under Red Hat Linux you should edit the
/etc/sysconfig/clock file and change the
UTC'' line to either ``UTC=true'' or ``UTC=false'' as
Setting the system clock
To set the system clock under Linux, use the
command. As an example, to set the current time and date to July 31,
11:16pm, type ``
date 07312316'' (note that the time is
given in 24 hour notation). If you wanted to change the year as well,
you could type ``
date 073123161998''. To set the seconds
as well, type ``
date 07312316.30'' or ``
073123161998.30''. To see what Linux thinks the current local
time is, run
date with no arguments.
Setting the hardware clock
To set the hardware clock, my favourite way is to set the system
clock first, and then set the hardware clock to the current system
clock by typing ``
/sbin/hwclock --systohc'' (or
/sbin/hwclock --systohc --utc'' if you are keeping the
hardware clock in UTC). To see what the hardware clock is currently
set to, run
hwclock with no arguments. If the hardware
clock is in UTC and you want to see the local equivalent, type
If some applications (such as
date) display the
correct time, but others don't, and you are running Red Hat Linux 5.0
or 5.1, you most likely have run into a bug caused by a move of the
timezone information from
/usr/share/zoneinfo. The fix is to create a symbolic
ln -s ../share/zoneinfo
/etc/sysconfig/clock sets whether the hardware clock
is stored as UTC or local time.
/usr/share/zoneinfo/... to set your timezone.
- Run ``
date MMDDhhmm'' to set the current system
- Type ``
/sbin/hwclock --systohc [--utc]'' to set the
Other interesting notes
The Linux kernel always stores and calculates time as the number of
seconds since midnight of the 1st of January 1970 UTC regardless of
whether your hardware clock is stored as UTC or not. Conversions to
your local time are done at run-time. One neat thing about this is
that if someone is using your computer from a different timezone, they
can set the TZ environment variable and all dates and times will
appear correct for their timezone.
If the number of seconds since the 1st of January 1970 UTC is
stored as an signed 32-bit integer (as it is on your Linux/Intel
system), your clock will stop working sometime on the year 2038.
Linux has no inherent Y2K problem, but it does have a year 2038
problem. Hopefully we'll all be running Linux on 64-bit systems by
then. 64-bit integers will keep our clocks running quite well until approximately the year 292271-million.
Credits:Article by http://www.linuxsa.org.au
Keywordstime, date, timezone